What can I do after I graduate in Medicine in Italy?

What happens after med school in Italy?

“I am interested in studying medicine in Italy, but I have concerns about living there permanently. I wonder if it is worth pursuing my degree in Italy, and if I can move abroad after completing my studies”.

These are common doubts that arise when making decisions about our future. 

Italy is renowned for its rich medical history; the Schola Medica Salernitana is a perfect example.

Located in the southern Italian city of Salerno on the Tyrrhenian Sea, the school was founded in the 9th century and quickly became a primary source of medical knowledge in Western Europe in the 10th century. Today, Italy has a strong reputation for medical education, with many prestigious universities offering a range of medical programs.

Pavia’s University is among the universities that provide an English MD program. The university launched the “Harvey” course in late 2009, the first of its kind in Italy. The course was intended to allow international students to study medicine in English and obtain an MD degree in Italy. Over the years, the Harvey course has become increasingly popular, attracting students from various parts of the world.

The first batch of Harvey students graduated in 2015-16, and obtained their M.D. license. In the meantime, other universities have started to welcome numerous students from all over the world by offering courses in English.

After completing their medical studies in English in Italy, what career paths are available to these graduates?

Academic opportunities 

Once students complete their medical studies in Italy, they can further their academic studies by enrolling in a PhD program.

These programs are designed to provide an in-depth knowledge of medicine and its various research areas. PhD programs offer a unique opportunity for students to conduct advanced research in their area of interest under the guidance of experienced faculty members. These programs aim to develop the skills and knowledge required to make significant contributions to the field of medicine and advance scientific understanding.

Countries like the United States and the United Kingdom are renowned for their exceptional medical doctoral programs. These programs provide students access to world-class facilities, state-of-the-art technology, and cutting-edge research opportunities. Additionally, they offer ample funding options for students, including research grants, salaries, and scholarships.

During their PhD studies, students must complete coursework, attend seminars, and participate in various research projects. They also have the opportunity to present their research findings at national and international conferences, which helps them to gain exposure and build their professional network.

Upon completion of their program, graduates can choose to pursue careers in academia, research, or industry or continue their research by enrolling in postdoctoral programs.

Non-clinical fields

Medical graduates have a plethora of career opportunities available to them beyond clinical practice.

One such career path is in the pharmaceutical industry, where they can work in various areas such as drug development, sales, marketing, regulatory affairs, clinical research, and medical affairs. They can also pursue careers in research and development of new drugs, contributing to discovering and developing innovative therapies that help improve patient outcomes.

Another potential career path for medical graduates is in health counseling, where they can help patients manage their health conditions and provide advice on lifestyle changes. They can also work in public health, helping to promote healthy living and prevent disease outbreaks. In medical education, they can share their knowledge and experience with others and help shape the next generation of medical professionals.

Proficiency in English is particularly useful for medical graduates who are interested in working with international customers or partners, as it enables them to communicate effectively and build strong relationships. This skill can benefit several fields, including pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and clinical research.

Clinical practice

After graduation, there are several options available for continuing your career. Some students choose to stay in Italy, while others opt to study abroad.

Switzerland (especially the Italian and French-speaking regions), the United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States are the most popular destinations for further education.

Clinical practice in Italy 

How can I work as a doctor in Italy?

In Italy, after obtaining a medical degree, those who wish to advance their career must register with the Albo dei Medici, the regulatory body that oversees the medical profession.

Aspiring specialists must participate in the National Competition for Access to Specialisation Schools in Medicine, also known as the ‘Specialisation Test’. This annual competition is designed to evaluate a candidate’s knowledge and skills in their chosen field of medical specialization. The competition consists of a series of quizzes and tests that are specific to each medical specialty.

Once applicants pass the national competition, they can enroll in a medical specialization program at Italian universities or accredited hospitals. The duration of the program varies depending on the chosen specialization, and it can range from 3 to 5 years. During this period, trainees undergo theoretical and practical training to acquire in-depth knowledge and expertise in their area of interest.

It is important to note that specific requirements and admission processes may vary slightly depending on the university or hospital offering the specialization program. In addition to the Specialisation Test, aspiring specialists may need to take other exams, such as the Italian language proficiency test. This test assesses the applicant’s language skills, and it is mandatory for non-Italian applicants who wish to enroll in an Italian university or hospital.

Clinical practice in the UK

After graduating from medical school, aspiring doctors in the UK must complete the Foundation Programme. This is a two-year postgraduate training program designed to provide practical experience in various areas of medicine, such as surgery, internal medicine, pediatrics, and others. The primary aim of this program is to develop basic clinical skills and autonomous decision-making, which are essential for a successful career in medicine.

The Foundation Programme comprises a series of supervised rotations in different medical settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and community health centers. During these rotations, doctors work alongside experienced medical professionals and learn how to diagnose and treat various medical conditions.

Upon completion of the Foundation Programme, doctors can enter Specialty Training Programmes, which typically last between five and six years and offer advanced training in a particular specialty. The training programs are highly competitive, and doctors are selected based on their academic performance and clinical skills.

During the Specialty Training Programme, doctors receive structured training in their chosen speciality, such as cardiology, surgery, psychiatry, etc. The training is delivered through clinical placements, classroom-based learning and practical skills workshops. The aim is to equip doctors with the knowledge and skills necessary to become experts in their field.

Doctors must pass the Royal Colleges examinations specific to their specialty to demonstrate their competency in the field. These examinations assess knowledge, clinical skills and the ability to make appropriate clinical decisions. Passing these exams is essential for obtaining the Certificate of Completion of Training (CCT).

Once the Specialty Training Programme is completed and the Royal Colleges examinations are passed, doctors receive the CCT, which certifies their eligibility to practice as specialists in that field. 

After obtaining the CCT, doctors must register with the General Medical Council (GMC), the organization that regulates the medical profession in the United Kingdom. Registration is required to practice as a medical specialist in England legally. GMC registration ensures that doctors meet the standards of professional conduct and practice expected of them.

Some doctors may complete further studies through fellowship programs to obtain advanced training in a specific sub-specialty, even after obtaining the CCT. Fellowship programs allow doctors to gain further expertise in a particular area of medicine and enhance their career prospects.

Doctors must participate in Continuing Professional Development (CPD) to stay up-to-date with the latest medical practices and further develop their skills, even after obtaining the CCT. CPD activities range from attending conferences and seminars to undertaking research projects and publishing papers.

In conclusion, medical specialization in England demands commitment, dedication, and time, but it offers excellent clinical training and career opportunities in the UK and the international healthcare sector. 

Clinical practice in the USA: Residency

Once a candidate has completed their medical degree, they must pass the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) for allopathic medical students (MD). The exam is divided into multiple steps and designed to assess the candidate’s clinical skills and knowledge. 

The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is a standardized test designed to assess the skills and knowledge of future physicians who want to obtain a medical license to practice in the United States. The exam is divided into three steps that evaluate fundamental knowledge of basic medical sciences and clinical practice, clinical skills, and the ability to make independent clinical decisions.

Step 1: USMLE Step 1

This step evaluates the basic knowledge of medical sciences and clinical practice. It consists of multiple-choice questions covering biochemistry, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and microbiology. It is usually taken after the second year of medical school.

Step 2: USMLE Step 2

Step 2 is divided into two subtests to assess clinical skills and the ability to solve clinical problems. USMLE Step 2 CK is a multiple-choice exam that evaluates clinical knowledge and the ability to make appropriate clinical decisions. USMLE Step 2 CS is a practical exam that assesses communication skills, history taking, physical examination, and formulation of differential diagnoses.

Step 3: USMLE Step 3

Step 3 evaluates advanced clinical skills and the ability to make independent clinical decisions. It consists of multiple-choice questions and a series of clinical scenarios that require written responses.

Exam Process:

Candidates must schedule the exam through the USMLE website and select an available date and location. Step 1 and Step 2 CK exams are computer-based and administered at authorized test centers worldwide. Step 2 CS is conducted at designated exam sites in the United States. Step 3 can be taken at authorized test centers or through remote delivery.

After passing the exam, graduates must participate in a residency training program, a specialized program offered by an accredited institution in the United States. Candidates must participate in the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) to gain access to residency programs. The program uses an algorithm to match candidates with their preferred residency programs.

The residency training program, or “residency training,” can last three to seven years, depending on the chosen specialty. During this period, residents work under the supervision of experienced physicians to gain practical experience and expertise in their chosen specialty. This period is essential to a physician’s training, providing them with the hands-on experience and knowledge needed to practice as a specialist.

Upon completing the residency training program, physicians must pass a specific board certification examination for their specialty. This exam evaluates the physician’s clinical competence and knowledge in their chosen specialty. Passing this exam is necessary for physicians to become certified specialists in their respective fields.

Once a physician has completed the residency training program and passed the board certification exam, they may apply for a practice license in their state of residency. 


Access to medical specialization in Switzerland is a well-structured process, which slightly varies depending on the language region of the country. Switzerland is a multilingual country, and knowledge of the language corresponding to the region of interest is essential to pursue medical specialization. If the prospective medical practitioner does not already speak the required language (German, French, or Italian), they may need to demonstrate appropriate language skills.

Medical specialization in Switzerland occurs through postgraduate training programs called ‘Formation Postgraduée’ or Weiterbildung, offered by university hospitals, regional hospitals, and other accredited institutions. These programs provide comprehensive training in a specific medical field and equip junior doctors with specialized skills and practical experience. To enter a postgraduate program, medical graduates must pass competitive admission competitions, which may include written tests and interviews. The admission criteria may vary depending on the specialty and hospital institution.

The duration of medical specialization in Switzerland varies depending on the specialty and training program chosen. Typically, it can last between three and six years. During this time, the junior doctors must complete a specified number of hours of clinical training and attend seminars and workshops. This training aims to provide them with practical experience and specialized skills in their specialized field of study, preparing them to become skilled medical practitioners.

At the end of the training program, junior doctors must pass a final examination to obtain certification as specialists. This certification enables them to practice as specialists in their field of study. Once they have completed their specialization, doctors must register with the cantonal Medical Association corresponding to the region in which they intend to practice. Moreover, registration with the Medical Association is mandatory to practice medicine in Switzerland legally.


For international graduates to practice medicine in Germany, several steps must be taken.

Firstly, international graduates must obtain recognition of their foreign degree from the Federal Office for the Recognition of Foreign Educational Qualifications (Bundesamt für das Anerkennung ausländischer Studienabschlüsse – BZaA). This recognition process ensures that their degree is equivalent to a German degree. Graduates must submit their original degree certificates, transcripts, and other related documents to apply for recognition. The application process can take weeks to months and may require additional documents or information.

Secondly, international graduates must demonstrate adequate language skills in German as medical practice in Germany requires fluency. This can be achieved by obtaining language proficiency certification through tests like TestDaf or the Goethe-Zertifikat. These language proficiency tests assess the candidate’s German reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills.

After obtaining recognition of their degree and demonstrating proficiency in German, international graduates must apply for approval of their medical license from the Regional Medical Association (Landesärztekammer) of the state where they wish to practice. The application process involves submitting various documents, such as proof of identity, proof of recognition of their degree, and proof of language proficiency. The Regional Medical Association then evaluates the application and may request additional documents or information.

Once their medical license is approved, international graduates must pass the State Medical Proficiency Examination (Ärztliche Kenntnisprüfung). This exam assesses the candidate’s medical knowledge and clinical skills and consists of a practical part and a theoretical part. The State Examination Office for Medicine, Pharmacy, and Psychotherapy conducts the exam.

Upon passing the Proficiency Examination, physicians can begin their specialist training (Facharztausbildung). This training program lasts five to six years and provides in-depth specialization in their chosen medical specialty. The training program includes theoretical and practical training and rotations in various medical departments.

At the end of specialist training, physicians must pass the specialist examination conducted by the Regional Medical Association in their specialty. This exam verifies the specialist skills and knowledge acquired during the training period. It is usually conducted over several days and includes both written and oral components.

After passing the specialist examination, physicians must register with the state’s Regional Medical Association, where they intend to practice. This registration is necessary to practice as a specialist physician in Germany legally. The registration process involves submitting various documents, such as proof of identity, proof of specialist examination, and proof of liability insurance.

Pursuing higher education in countries like the US or UK can be expensive. 

Studying medicine in Italy could be a great option for many American or British students. The reason is the high cost of medical education in their home countries. By studying in Italy, they can save considerable money while still receiving a quality education.

Moreover, the faculty is highly qualified and experienced, and the curriculum is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of medical theory and practical knowledge.

Aside from the academic benefits, studying in Italy offers a unique cultural experience. Students can immerse themselves in the Italian lifestyle and explore the country’s rich history and breathtaking scenery. And let’s not forget about the food – Italy is renowned for its delicious cuisine, and students can enjoy a variety of authentic Italian dishes during their stay.

So, if you are considering studying medicine and are looking for an affordable and high-quality education, Italy is worth considering.

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